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Trial Results: Recent ECOG-ACRIN research

Research dictionary entry

  • Blood Cancer – A group of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma had improved outcomes after receiving the chemotherapy drug lenalidomide with standard chemotherapy treatment (R-CHOP) (R2CHOP), compared to the group that received standard therapy alone. These results signal a need to study this and similar approaches in clinical trials with larger groups of patients. Nowakowski GS. J Clin Oncol. February 2021

  • Breast Cancer – Several years ago, the TAILORx breast cancer treatment trial confirmed using the results from a tumor gene test (21-gene Recurrence Score, also known as Oncotype DX®) to guide decisions about whether to use chemotherapy after surgery to prevent cancer from returning. Although the test result alone is clear for the majority of patients, some cases are more nuanced. A new educational tool (RSClin™) is for shared decision-making by clinicians and patients. The tool integrates a woman’s age, tumor size, and tumor grade with her 21-gene Recurrence Score (RS) test result. It is for cases where women and their doctors need additional clarity. Examples include women with high clinical risk features and a low RS, low clinical risk features and a high RS, and patients 50 years or younger and an RS in the upper mid-range of 16-25. At this time, the tool only applies to node-negative breast cancer. Sparano JA. J Clin Oncol. December 2020

  • Breast Cancer – The phase III trial E2112 evaluated adding the drug entinostat to endocrine therapy in over 600 patients with hormone receptor (HR)-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer. Entinostat did not demonstrate an overall survival benefit over endocrine therapy alone. Although the trial results are negative, they highlight the importance of conducting well-designed randomized controlled trials to confirm or refute phase II clinical trial findings. Study chair Roisin M. Connolly, MD, presented the final results at the 2020 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium.

  • Head and Neck Cancer – There is a new detailed review of FDG-PET/CT scan findings collected from a group of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma that had not spread to the surrounding lymph nodes. It is the first comprehensive study on using imaging scans to help predict the risk of head and neck cancer spreading. Stack BC. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. November 2020

  • Head and Neck Cancer – Patient questionnaires are proven to be an acceptable way to measure swallowing disabilities in future clinical trials for patients with head and neck cancers. The modified barium swallow is an x-ray procedure and is one of several current measures. However, it is costly, requires specialized medical staff, and uncomfortable for patients. Patient questionnaires are more convenient and lower in cost. This analysis is the first attempt to validate the use of patient-reported information in this way. Cmelak AJ. Cancers Head Neck. December 2020

  • NCI-MATCH – The latest data from this ongoing precision medicine cancer trial shows that the drug capivasertib (taken orally) was effective in a group of patients with tumor gene mutations (AKT), regardless of cancer type. AKT mutations are known to cause cancer growth. Cancer had spread to other parts of the body, and most patients had already received three or more previous treatments. These results signal a need for clinical trials to study capivasertib in a larger group of these patients. Kalinsky KM. JAMA Oncol. December 2020

  • Prostate Cancer – Relying upon the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test alone is not enough to monitor patients receiving treatment for metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. New information from the CHAARTED trial (E3805) suggests the benefits of using imaging scans along with PSA testing to monitor patients with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. Bryce AH. Eur Urol Oncol. December 2020

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